An invention is defined as reduction to practice of an idea or discovery that is useful, new and nonobvious.
The United States Constitution declares that “The Congress Shall Have Power . . . To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries....” (Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the U.S. Constitution)
Once an invention is awarded patent, the creator of the invention is empowered to exclude others temporarily (currently 20 years from the filing date) from use of that concept without compensation (i.e., confers the right to exclude others from making, using, selling, offering to sell, or importing into the United States the patented invention.)
Patent Act of 1952 entitles inventors to obtain patents on processes, machines, manufactures, and compositions of matter that are useful, new, and nonobvious. However, United States will grant patent on an invention to an inventor who was first to file patent application for his or her invention and or reduced the invention to practice.